nya strömningar, fransk surrealism, spektrums förlag

The very first time Marcel Duchamp appears in a Swedish publication is in "nya strömningar, fransk surrealism" published by spektrum press 1933. It is an anthology of poems by French surrealistic poets translated from French by the Swedish poet Gunnar Ekelöf and with an introduction by him. (12) (13)

12. nya strömningar, spektrum förlag, 1933. 13. Marcel Duchamp, surrealistiskt föremål, illustration in "nya strömningar 1933".

Marcel Duchamp appears two times in this book. First, he is mentioned in a note on page 47. That note refers to a critique about the film history written by Salvador Dali where he comments René Clair’s film Entr´Acte. "...though René Clair, it really resumes the concepts of Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray and Francis Picabia..."

Duchamp’s second appearance is about Benjamin Péret’s poem "Föratt fördriva tiden", (While away the Time), page 53. That poem is illustrated with one of Duchamp’s kinetic works. At the time a very advanced choice of illustration, and the Swedish caption reads "Marcel Duchamp, surrealistiskt föremål" followed by the pun in French "rose selavy et moi, nous estimons les ecchymoses des esquimaux aux mots exquis." But the correct title is "Rotary Demisphere (Precision Optics)", Paris 1925.) S 409. This piece was exhibited in Stockholm 1961 at "Rörelse i konsten" (Art in motion). According to Schwarz, this object belongs to Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York since 1970.


BLM, Bonniers Litterära Magasin, Volume 3, no. 3

In BLM 1934 Volume 3, no. 3 page 34-50 (14) Gunnar Ekelöf published his article "Från Dadaism till Surrealism". He introduces Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, and Andre Breton on page 36: "Of extremely importance for the continuing development of the movement (Dada) became however three ally which planted it in Paris. They were Francis Picabia and Marcel Duchamp, both astounding word jugglers experimenting with artistic values, and a group of young writers around the magazine ‘Literature’ published by Andre Breton."

14. BLM, no. 3 1934. Gunnar Ekelöf, "Från dadaism till surrealism"

Ekelöf also mentions that Duchamp and Picabia had access to the following magazines; Duchamp’s "Wrong-Wrong", (Rongwrong, 1917), S 348, "The Blind Man", (The Blind Man No. 1: Independents´Number 1917), S 346, (The Blind Man No. 2: P.B.T. 1917), S 347 and Picabia’s "291", (1915) and "391", (1920).

Ekelöf even points out "Fountain", (1917), S 345, "... which under the pseudonym R. Mutt was send in to the Independents Show in New York, which originates from someone in the circle. Since the Fountain simply was an urinal and it was therefore rejected".


konkretion, no. 5-6

Two years later, Duchamp appears again in Vilh. Bjerke-Petersen’s magazine "konkretion" no. 5-6, 1936 published in Copenhagen, Oslo and Stockholm. This magazine is mainly written in Danish. (15)

This is the last and a special double-issue about "Surrealism in Paris". Duchamp’s contribution is an illustration to the Belgian poet Gisèle Prassino’s text "Den forfulgte unge pige", 1935. The caption reads: "Marcel Duchamp: ‘Moustiques domestiques demistock‘. Photo Man Ray". In Schwarz, the title is (Monte Carlo Bond, Paris 1924.) S 406. In Schwarz it is called "imitated rectified readymade". Duchamp did less then eight and of the planed 30 copies of version a. There are also a version b, 1938 and a version c, 1941.

15. konkretion, no. 5-6 double-issue 1936.


Prisma, no. 1

Next time Duchamp appears in Sweden is twelve years later. It is in the first issue of the exclusive magazine "Prisma" no. 1, 1948. He is mentioned in the section called "Experimentalfältet" (The field of experiments), page 99 where Ebbe Neergaard writes about "French-American-German experimental film" in New York among other films "Dreams That Money Can Buy". (16) This film consists of six parts compiled by Hans Richter. The contributing artists are Fernand Léger, Max Ernst, Man Ray, Alexander Calder, and Marcel Duchamp. The article is illustrated with five photographs. Illustration no. 5 shows a detail of Duchamp’s part. It is from his scandal painting "Nude descending a staircase". S 342.

This film was also shown May 21, 1958 at Moderna Museet’s film studio, Stockholm during "Apropå Eggeling, Avant-Garde-Film". (17)

16. Prisma no. 1 1948. 17. Apropå Eggeling, Avantgarde Film Festival, catalogue, 1958.


Konstrevy no. 3

In Konstrevy’s no. 3, 1948 Haavard Rostrup writes about Marcel Duchamp’s brother Jacques Villon. (18) Where he makes a comment about Marcel Duchampas follows, "Jacques Villon’s name is really
Gaston Duchamp and brother to the cubist sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon, who died already in 1918, and to the painter Marcel Duchamp. First a cubist painter later one of the founder of Dadaism, but since 1920 turned his back to the art and devoted himself to chess."

18. Konstrevy no. 3 1948.


Konstrevy no. 4-5

In Konstrevy’s double issue no. 4-5, 1950 Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia contributes with her article "Några minnen från den abstrakta konstens första år" (Some memories from the first years of abstract art). (19)

19. Konstrevy no. 4-5 1950.

She writes: "In 1910 I got acquainted with the brothers Duchamps-the oldest Raymond Duchamps, and the nowadays lively appreciated, completely personal painter Jacques Villon yet only carefully spectators to the fast development of painting which seemed to be the case. But the youngest, Marcel Duchamp, showed already distinctive qualifications to be as incontrovertible as he was: one of the strangest spirits of his time and the one who has the deepest influence to the abstract art as the growth of the youngest poetry.

Marcel Duchamp was among the young circle that was eager to fight. And the one, with his work–consisting of a few paintings-his opinions and way of living, but with his own intuition and intelligence, without effort and affection, reached beyond the systematic destruction of the traditional standards of art, which up till now were reverential accepted theories. Thus he appears among other things as one of the predecessors of surrealism; but the peak of the picturesque anarchism was first achieved around 1915.

When we first met Duchamp, he was sincerely engaged with an issue that was developed by the Italian Futurism- i.e. the possibility to express movement within the frame of static painting. One of his earliest and most well known canvases ‘Nu descendant au escalier’ shows an almost cinematographic decomposition of movement within the schedule of a skeleton. Duchamp’s acquaintance with Picabia was of great importance to both of them."

Further down she writes: "In 1910, at rue Trouchet was an exhibition with Picasso, Duchamp and Picabia, showing paintings already with a striking boldness, but still far from the character they later achieved." She also writes about Salon d’Independent 1912. And further: "The same year there was the great exposition "La Section d’Or" with works by , Duchamp, Gris, Delaunay and Picabia. Finally in January 1913 in New York was a countless audience of genuine American characters invited to giant exhibition in order to give them knowledge about the abstract art. I was attending the opening, which occurred at night in huge premises with elegant guests.

It reminds me that a man in a white tie opened it. And up on a rostrum he explained: ‘Ladies and gentlemen, this exhibition which you can see now, which covers such as such big surfaces of the walls, count such as such many canvases and have cost us such as such much to arrange. It is nowyour task to learn and to understand modern art, and that’s that.’ Without finding any understanding the new art had conquered its place in the intellectual life, but also in another field: The Speculation, which since that time have tried and often succeeded to involve even the art into its unceasing and humiliating race similar to the value of stocks."

This article illustrated with 3 works by Duchamp and Picabia.
Marcel Duchamp: "Why Not sneeze?" 1921. Photo: R. Selavy. A Semi-Readymade, New York 1921. S 391. According to Schwarz, the original is at Philadelphia Museum of Art, (PMA). One replica made by Ulf Linde in 1963 for Duchamp’s exhibition at Galerie Eva af Burén, now at Moderna Museet, (MMS), Stockholm, which was signed and dated by Duchamp in Milan 1964.

Marcel Duchamp: "Elevage de poussière". Photo: Man Ray 1920. (Bred Readymade. [Dust Breeding]), S 382. According to Schwarz, both Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp took this photograph. Now it belongs to the Jedermann Collection N.A.

Marcel Duchamp: "Nu descendant un Escalier", 1912. (Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2), S 242. It is now at the PMA. They also have Duchamp’s first version. S 239.

The chief editor of Konstrevy 1950 was Mrs Ingrid Rydbeck-Zuhr. One must consider her choice of illustrations with such extreme works by Duchamp in1950 as very advanced and visionary.


Konstperspektiv no. 4

In no. 4/1951 Gunnar Hellman writes an article: "Variationer på ett gammalt tema" (Variations on an old theme), where he quote Oscar Reutersvärd’s catalogue text from the exhibition Neo-Plastic Art, Galerie Samlaren, Stockholm 1951. Hellman’s article is illustrated with Duchamp’s ‘Nu descendant un Escalier" 1912, (Nude Descending a Staircase), S 242, with following caption; "In 1912 the Frenchman Marcel Duchamp did this nude model, descending a staircase." Why Hellman used Duchamp’s painting as an illustration, I don’t know because it was never shown at the exhibition according to that catalogue. (20)

20. Konstperspektiv no. 4 1951.


Konstrevy no. 2

In Konstrevy no. 2/1952 you can find Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia’s article "I dadaismens tid" (In the time of Dadaism) where she tells us about Duchamp’sstay in New York. (21)

21. Konstrevy no. 2 1952.

"The Dadaism existed before it got a name", she writes.

She describes her ten years experience of the Dada-epoch and divides it into three parts. The first Dada-epoch in New York she calls (Pré-Dada). The second, the real Dada-epoch, took place in Zurich and the third Dada-period was in Paris.

She also describes the Dadaism in Germany with Max Ernst and Hans Richter in Düsseldorf, Huelsenbeck in Berlin, Schwitters in Cologne. The latter she characterises as the complete Dadaist, how he invented his own words and how he built his own house and organised his household. Laconically she states that Dada was born 1917.

She also tells the story about the conception of Dada, which many Dadaists have claimed to coin. But it can be referred to a happy circumstance, that the Larousse dictionary by chance opened on the page where the word Dada was listed, when Hugo Ball and Hulsenbeck looked for a sensational name for a dance sketch, which Emmy Hennings, Hugo Ball’s wife, should perform at Cabaret Voltaire.

She continues: "Picabia and Duchamp, which were the first newsmakers of the period tore from 1910 all bonds with the classicism as the four Gospels. Though they were each other’s opponents both in reactions and way of working, there was a strange competition in order to reach destructive and paradoxical, blasphemously and inhuman suggestions.

Guillaume Apollinaire often took part in these attempts of demoralisation, which also were an attack of witticism, puns, and jokes, and even easy replaced the formal values of beauty with personal dynamism and suggestive, inventive and individual forces. This playful search into unknown dimensions and into the unexplored regions of a being, this spirit of invention, which never have come back, it seems to me, were containing all the seeds, which later become the Dadaism, and even that, which since then have grown on to the new ramifications."...

..."For his personal use Duchamp come to create a mechanical world of fantasy, consequent and logical, applied to a sentimental gearwheel deed, specifying one necessary text in order to understand the painting as ‘la Marié mise à nu par ses célibataires mêmes´." S 404.

And further "In this art environment Duchamp received a popularity, which he got because of the lasting success with his first exhibited work in the United States: ‘Nu descendant un escalier’. Between two whiskies and two puns he yet demonstrates an attitude to distance from everything even from himself; his lacking interest in human standards is by the way not the least reason that the pleasant curiosity he is subject to in the admiring milieu.

Soon he declares that he is going to end all artistic production and he keeps his word. If he still takes part in any artistic manifestations, he does it in order to create a scandal... For example, he shows at the New York Independents Show one Ready-made called ‘Fountain’, which was nothing else than a urinal. Later, not the least, sensational scandal: he puts a moustache on Mona Lisa, by that symbolising his contempt for the fetishism of art…"

"…It is during this period when Cravan, boxer poet and since 1912 publisher of a small avant-garde magazine ‘Maintenant’, made his notorious lecture.
Cravan was asked to give an enlightening lecture for a selected party. He was drunk and insulted in obscene terms his audience of elegant ladies and started calmly to undress until two strong policemen took him away with handcuffs on. He was immediately released by Arensberg’s intervention and was lively congratulated by his friends Picabia and Duchamp, which were the ones really responsible for the scandal."

This article is illustrated with works of Picabia, Duchamp, Jean Arp, Sophie Tæuber Arp, and Kurt Schwitters.

Marcel Duchamp, "La Joconde". The correct title is "L.H.O.O.Q." according to S 369, and is a rectified Readymade made in Paris 1919. The original belongs today to a private collector in Paris. Of this major work Schwarz describes five replicas, and one of them are made in an edition of 38 numbered copies 1-35 are signed and 3 unnumbered copies.

There is certain confusion concerning this piece. (As for many of Duchamp’s works, mainly about his Ready-mades, which are often said to have been exhibited as original works.

(In my own essay, Konstmagasinet No. 14, 1991, (22) I have listed which of his Ready-mades still exist in the original version. His "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" S 306, is perhaps the best example of the difficulties according to the provenance of his Ready-mades. See Index)

22. Konstmagasinet no. 14 Nov. 1991, Leif Eriksson,
"Marcel Duchamps Readymades: Original och kopior!"

One is about Picabia’s "La Joconde". He wanted to use Duchamp’s work as a cover illustration for his magazine "391", but Duchamp’s piece did not arrive in time. Picabia made his own version but forget the goat’s beard. Duchamp later corrected that.

The Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]

When we are talking about one of Duchamp’s most famous readymade "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" there are a lot of confusions. Even one of the best exegete of Duchamp’s works, Ulf Linde does a huge mistake when he in his book "Spejare", Stockholm 1960, stated: "1914 he fetched a Bottle Dryer (Bottlerack) from a cafe and exhibited it at a salon as a sculpture."

Considering that Linde’s book was the first penetrating analyses of Duchamp’s works in Sweden it had an unfortunate impact, because that inaccurate description is still alive. (23)

Because, the original version, has never been exhibited! That is the case for most of his ready-mades.

I think that Duchamp did not care if it was an "original" or a "replica" he exhibited. His comment on different interpretations or replicas of his works was "It amuses me". And that is convenient according to his attitude toward art and the art world, which he protested against by choosing his ready-mades.

The original version of "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" is lost. Duchamp bought his first at Bazaar de l’ Hotel de Ville in Paris 1914. That the original version disappeared is due to his sister Suzanne who was asked by her brother to clean his apartment in Paris when he was in New York. She simply cleaned it away.

(In a new book) (24) "Affectt Marcel. The Selected Correspondence of Marcel Duchamp" by Francis M. Naumann & Hector Obalk, Thames & Hudson 2000, you find two letters written in January and October 1916 to Suzanne Duchamp where Duchamp introduces his concept about his ready-mades.

23. Leif Eriksson. Some versions of Bottlerack 1914-, 1987. 24. Francis M. Naumann & Hector Obalk, Affectt._ Marcel The Selected Correspondence of Marcel Duchamp, Thames & Hudson 2000.

"…Now, if you have been up to my place, you will have seen, in the studio, a bicycle wheel and a bottle rack. I bought this a ready-made sculpture. And I have a plan concerning this so-called bottle-rack. Listen to this: here in N. Y., I have bought various objects in the same taste and I treat them as "ready-mades".
You know enough English to understand the meaning of "ready-made" that I give these objects. I sign them and I think of an inscription for them in English. I´ll give you a few examples. I have, for example, a large snow shovel on which I have inscribed att the bottom: In advance of the broken arm, French translation: En avance du bras cassé Don’t tear your hair out of trying to understand this in the Romantic or Impressionist or Cubist sense—it has nothing to do with all that.

Another "readymade" is called: Emergency in favour of twice, possible French translation: Danger /Crise/ en faveur de 2 fois. This long preamble just to say: take this bottle rack for yourself. I’m making it a "readymade," remotely. You are to inscribe it at the bottom and on the inside of the bottom circle, in small letters painted with a brush in oil, silver white colour, with an inscription which I will give you herewith, and then sign it, in the same handwriting, as follows:
[after) Marcel Duchamp. [end of letter could very well be missing]"

In the letter dated October 16, 1916, he returns to the subject and asks: "… Did you write the inscription on the ready made? Do it. And send it to me (the inscription) and let me know exactly what you did."

Later Duchamp, in his text "Apropos of Ready mades" 1961, describes how the term Readymade arose. "In 1913 I got the good idea to attach a bicycle wheel to kitchen chair and saw it turn." In New York 1915 he bought a snow shovel and wrote on it: In advance of the Broken Arm. "It was about this time the word readymade come to my mind to describe this form of appearance."

Duchamp bought the second version of "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" for his sister 1921. This version later belonged to the collection of Robert Lebel, and was later signed by Duchamp: "Marcel Duchamp/Antique certifie" and reproduced in Lucy R. Lippard's essay in MoMA's Duchamp catalogue 1973.
Today this version belongs to Jean-Jacque Lebel, Paris.

Duchamp did his third version of "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" in 1936. It was exhibited the same year at Charles Ratton's gallery in Paris, May 1936. This third copy belonged to Man Ray, but there is no record where it is today, but you can see it in the photograph showing the interior of Ratton's gallery, reproduced in the catalogue "Dada and Surrealism Reviewed", London 1978.
Robert Rauschenberg bought a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" which Duchamp signed in the following way: "Impossible de me rappler la phase original/Marcel Duchamp/1960". This third version was exhibited at Pasadena Art Museum 1963, Duchamp’s first retrospective exhibition.

In 1961, Duchamp selected a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" for his wife Alexina Duchamp, (She was deceased 1995), with the inscription: "Marcel Duchamp 1914, (Replique 1961).

In 1963 Ulf Linde made a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", now at Moderna Museet, Stockholm. This version was exhibited at Galleria Schwarz, about the release of the edition of replicas made by Galleria Schwarz, Milan 1964 in order to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Duchamp’s first Readymade. Schwarz released an edition of 8 signed copies and 2 copies outside the edition reserved for the artist and Schwarz. These have the inscription: "ex Rrose and ex Arturo". There are another two copies made for exhibition purposes inscribed with: "Ex. h.c. pour exposition, 1964 and "Ex I/II donated to Israel Museum, Jerusalem, on occasion of Duchamp retrospective, 1972. S 306.

But there are also other versions. There is one, which Daniel Spoerri lent to Bokkonsum's exhibition in 1960. This version is not mention in Schwarz. Perhaps because Duchamp never signed it. One of the latest I have seen was shown in the exhibition "A house is not a home" at Rooseum in Malmö 18.10-14.12, 1997.

Episode: When I asked the museum director Bo Nilsson, where he had found the "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", he told me that he and the former director, Lars Nittve, had some serious problems to find a copy. "You could have called me", I said.
I could notice a certain touch of irritation.

My own copy of the "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" was purchased by my friend Torsten Ridell in the end of the ‘70:s at Bazaar de l’ Hotel de Ville. My version is a Meta piece, a re-made, which brings it back to its original purpose i.e. to dry wine bottles.

In 1997 I order a new one made of plastic by my friend Jean Luc Guinnement in Paris, but he misunderstood my request and sent me a green painted metal copy also purchased at Bazaar de l’ Hotel de Ville in Paris. After this wrong delivery, Angelica Juhlner, Fox Amphoux, succeeded to find the plastic variant in Bajoule, Provence. This copy has a bright yellow bottom plate and a blue rack, which can be dislocated in smaller parts.
This version are included in my own project "Pole Room", 1977-, where all the items allude to the fact that blue and yellow become green when mixed. This plastic version has a amusing connection by chance to the description of how Elvis Presley was dressed when he was found dead in his bathroom: "He died in his pyjamas, blue top and yellow bottom."

Duchamp’s "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" shows indeed that "Ars longa vita brevis..." to use a common incomplete quotation.

A wide spread information is that Duchamp’s "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" was exhibited at MoMA's "Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism" 1936/137. But that is a truth with modification. That "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" was Man Ray’s photograph of a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", probably the copy, which was exhibited by Charles Ratton in May 1936. In MoMA's catalogue you can find a reproduction, where the "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" stands on a corner of a table. In that catalogue, you find the correct origin, but that information is lost in later catalogues and books. (25)

25. Duchamp: "Ready-made," 1914. Photo Man Ray.


KASARK no. 1

Objekt eller artefakter verkligheten förverkligad

KASARK is a seven-paged magazine, sic, published by Galerie Samlaren februari - mars 1954. On page 6, K. G. H. (Pontus Hultén) writes an article with the headline "READY-MADE". This is the first time someone in Sweden tries to explain what Duchamp’s ready-mades represent. Two works by Marcel Duchamp are reproduced in this issue of KASARK. (26)

26. KASARK no 1 1954. K. G. H. (Pontus Hultén) READY-MADE.

Marcel Duchamp: "Ögat i Biljardbollen", 1935. Rotorelief för grammofon. Bilden roterar med lägsta hastighet och betraktas med ett öga." ("The eye in the billiard ball, 1935. Rotorelief for gramophone. The image will rotate at the slowest speed and looked at with one eye.), (Rotoreliefs (Optical Disks) 2", 1935, S 441. First edition 500 sets, each set with 6 cardboard disks printed on both sides. About 300 sets were lost during World War II. Marcel Duchamp: Flasktorkare, ready made, 1914. ("Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]"), ready-made, 1914. S 306.


Konstrevy no. 3

On page 131, Ulf Linde reviews the exhibition "Object or artefacts reality fulfilled" at Galerie Samlaren in Stockholm 1954. (27) He mentions Dada and he also makes a special comment on a piece bought at EPA, a one price store company in Sweden, similar to Bazaar
de l’ Hotel de Ville in Paris, where you can buy all kinds of cheap goods.

27. Catalogue Galerie Samlaren, Stockholm 1954.

His comment refers to a piece no. 33 in the exhibition catalogue by V. Enhult, (an anagram and pseudonym for Pontus Hultén, one of those who organised the exhibition.), with the title "Object with unknown application, ready-made found at One Price Store EPA in Stockholm 1952." Linde writes "The title must be understood as an attempt to release the object from all trivial relations to flour bags in order to make it an aesthetic object of ‘exclusive uselessness’". He does not write anything about Duchamp.


Odyssé no. 2-3

In this issue you find a note about Picabia, where it also says that Duchamp published a Dadaist publication "291" and "391".


Odyssé no. 4

Dag Wedholm published Odyssé. Other editors: Ilmar Laaban, Öyvind Fahlström, Gösta Kriland, Pär Wistrand, and V. Lundström. (28)(29)

28. Odyssé no. 4 1954, cover. 29. Odyssé no. 4 1954, "Marcel Duchamp".

Gösta Kriland, artist, and Ilmar Laaban, poet, have translated fourteen of Marcel Duchamp’s notes. You can also find a biographical note about Duchamp, which point out that he is one of the leading Dadaists, which have published a number of magazines together with Picabia and others. That he has used the pseudonym "LHOOQ - Elle a chaud au cul. Book: Rrose Sélavy. Film: Anemic Cinema. After 1920 only temporarily devoted himself to art - but more to chess." (L.H.O.O.Q.) S 369.


Gåsblandaren, hösten 1954

Students at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm have published Gåsblandaren and Vårblandaren since 1863. Among the editors 1951-1955 are Hans Nordenström one of Pontus Hultén’s closest friends, who participated in many of Hulten’s early projects in the 50:s and 60:s. On the front cover collage of Gåsblandaren, autumn 1954 you can find one of Duchamp’s Rotoreliefs. S 441. (30) See also item no. 2 in "Das gedruckte Museum von Hulten" 1996. (31)

30. Gåsblandaren, autumn 1954. 31. Lutz Jahre, Das gedruckte Museum von Pontus Hultén, 1996.


Vårblandaren, våren 1955

Vårblandaren was a box containing lose material all referring to art in a Dadaist fashion. It is told that George Machunias, the Fluxus leader, used this box-issue as a model for his different kits. (32)

32. Boulevardkartongen, Tvångsblandaren in a box,
spring mcmlv (1955).


Konstrevy no. 1

In this issue, you find on the inside of the front cover an advertisement published by Galerie Samlaren, Stockholm with this message "marcel du champ, new york/hultén/". Why Duchamp appears in this advertisement I do not know.
It can be some kind of tribute due to Hultén’s interests and appreciation of him. At the time Hultén was working for Galerie Samlaren and was engaged in editing KASARK where he wrote about Duchamp several times. (33)

33. Konstrevy no. 1 1955.


Salamander no. 1

C. O. Hultén opened his Galerie Colibri, Malmö in January 1955 and the first issue of Salamander was published that year. Only three issues were published 1955-1956. (34) In the first issue you can find a translated fragment of André Breton's text "Phare de la Mariée", (Bruden som fyrbåk, [Lighthouse of the bride]), first published in Minotaur no. 6, 1935. Ilmar Laaban and Ingemar Gustafsson (Leckius), both poets, made the translation. In this issue, you find three of Duchamp’s works.

34. Salamander no. 1, no. 2, no. 3 1955.


"Bruden som avklädd av sina ungkarlar, t.o.m. Glasmålning", (The Bride
Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even [The Large Glass]), S 404.

"Övergång mellan jungfru och brud". Olja 1912. (The Passage from Virgin to Bride) 1912. S 252.

"Nio hanliga gjutformar, detalj ur glasmålningen". (Nine Malic Moulds detail from the Large Glass.)

It must be something wrong with this title because if it is a detail from "The Large Glass" you must see a part of the water mill, which you don’t do, though "Nine Malic Moulds" are a part of the bachelors region. Duchamp made according to Schwarz four versions. The original version 1914-15. S 328. It was cracked in 1915. The second 1934, present location unknown. S 328 a. In 1938 Duchamp made miniature reproductions prepared for "The Box in a Valise". S 328 b. The third he made in 1963, S 328 c.

As Salamander was published in 1955 and shows a cracked version, it must be the original version. It belongs to Alexina Duchamp since 1956. In the catalogue from Pasadena, retrospective exhibition 1963 there is a reproduction of the second version but dated 1963, and it has no similarity with the second version 1934 in Schwarz 1997.

You can also find Marcel Duchamp’s "SURcenSUR" originally published in "L’ usage de la Parole", (Paris) 1, nr 1 (December 1939) here translated by Erik Lindgren, poet and Ilmar Laaban. This text is illustrated with yellow and black version of Duchamp’s "Témoins Oculistes (Oculist Witnesses) 1920, New York. S 383. Now it is at PMA. (The original is not coloured.)

Ingemar Gustafsson (Leckius) has also written a short biographical note about Duchamp.

This is the first time Duchamp’s major work "The Large Glass", was reproduced in Sweden. It is the original, which later was cracked during transportation from Brooklyn Museum 1927. Now it is at PMA, earlier Kathrine S. Dreier, bequest.

There are different versions of Duchamp’s "The Large Glass". Among others, Ulf Linde’s version signed pour copie conforme/ Marcel Duchamp/Stockholm 1961.
This version was exhibited in Pasadena Art Museum, 1963, which was the first retrospective exhibition of Duchamp’s works.

The copy at Tate Gallery, London was made by Richard Hamilton signed "Richard Hamilton/pour copie conforme/Marcel Duchamp/1965". A third copy will be found at Art Museum of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1980.

A fourth replica was made 1991-1992 by Ulf Linde, Henrik Samuelsson och John Stenborg and has been authorised by Alexina Duchamp.


Konstrevy no. 3

In this issue, the art critic Bo Lindwall has published his article "Marcel Duchamp-saboteur och anti-konstnä
r". (Marcel Duchamp-saboteur and anti-artist). (35)

35. Konstrevy no. 3 1955.

He writes: "His intellect sharp as a razor analysing every given possibility to pieces. He started to detest all styles which he completely controlled, he found that even the most radical cubists yield to disgusting aestheticism, already towards petrified academism. His creativity was paralysed. The paralysis could not be stopped as long as he dreamt about renewing the art when he succeeded to convince himself that serious artistic activity was meaninglessness, than the paralysis disappeared. A coffee mill became his rescue in the first difficult crisis... 32 years ago he put down his brush for good. He is still alive."

The coffee mill Lindwall refers to is "Coffee Mill", which Duchamp painted for his brother Raymond Duchamp - Villon’s kitchen. S 237. Since 1981, it is at Tate Gallery, London.

This piece is an important reference for Ulf Linde’s actual geometrical analyse of Duchamp’s last major piece "Etant Donnés: 1• la chute d’eau/2• le gaz d'èclairage, 1946-66". S 634. Now it is at PMA. (But the latest news about this project is that Linde has left it unfinished.)


Marcel Duchamp: "Porträtt av konstnärens fader", 1910. (Portrait of the artist’s father, 1910), S 191. Now it is at PMA.

"Sonaten" (Konstnärens mor och tre systrar), 1911. (Sonata, 1911), S 229. Now it is at PMA.

"Fresh Widow", 1920, S 376. Now it is at MoMA.
There are two other versions of this piece, Ulf Linde’s 1961 Now it is at MMS, and Schwarz´ anniversary edition 1964.

"Modeller till schackpjäser", 1922. (Chess Pieces, 1918-19), S 377. Now it is at MoMA.

"Ungkarlarna", 1914, (Cemetery of Uniforms and Liveries No. 2, 1914), S 305. Now it is at Yale University Art Gallery.

"Collage: Monte Carlo", 1924, (Monte Carlo Bond, 1924), S 406.
See above.

"Ready-made, 1914 (Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", 1914), S 306. See above.

"3 stoppages étalon", 1913, (3 Stoppages Étalon (3 Standard Stoppages, 193-14), S 282. The original is at MoMA. Replica made by Ulf Linde 1963 Now at MMS. A replica 1963 is at Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena.

"Förvandlingen från jungfru till brud", (The Passage from Virgin to Bride, 1912), S 252. Now it is at MoMA.

(As one checks the titles in Schwarz latest catalogue raisonné you can see that the titles in the Swedish captions not always correspond.)

In the same issue, page 127, Konstrevy present Denis René's exhibition "Le Mouvement". Pontus Hultén organised that exhibition together with Robert Breer and Jean Tinguely and some of Duchamp's mechanical works were represented. "... in some cases they have, as Duchamp used, clockworks or electricity operate the machinery." They also point out that Samlaren's exhibition 1954, see above, was a forerunner to Denis René's.


Salamander no. 2

In Salamander no. 2 there is an article about Robert Matta written by James Thrall Soby where he suggests Duchamp’s influence on Matta. Soby refers to the Surrealist Exhibition "First Papers of Surrealism" in New York 1942. Soby implies that Matta has been influenced by Duchamp’s Sixteen Miles of Strings, S 488, which was running back and forth in the exhibition. And Soby continues "The effect on his (Matta's) paintings is more likely as Duchamp's influence by large had a great impact."

Sydsvenska Dagbladet (SDS), Tuesday, June 14, 1955
In this daily newspaper, Duchamp made an odd appearance in Sweden, by chance so to speak. (36) The advertising agency Sellers & Co. advertised trying to get new clients by this advertisement. They used Mona Lisa and put a moustache on her. In a footnote, they refer to Marcel Duchamp. "Why not be original? The Dadaist Marcel Duchamp thought sometimes in the twenties-and put a moustache on Mona Lisa! Both Duchamp’s fantastic trick and the Dadaism had however short lifetimes like a dragonfly. How many for example know today anything about monsieur Marcel Duchamp’s herostratic creation of art?" (33).

36. Sydsvenska Dagbladet, Tuesday, June 14 1955.


KASARK no. 2 Okt.

In this issue, K. G. Hultén (Pontus Hultén) presents "Art in Motion-kinetic art". I think Hultén is the first one to write and point out this field of art. On the cover printed in bold and light red capital letters you find this headline: "Objekt eller artefakter verkligheten förverkligad" 1954 (The substituted freedom or about art in motion and Tinguely's metamecanic by Karl G. Hultén). (37)

37. KASARK no. 2, autumn 1955.

Hultén was one of the curators of "Le Mouvement" at Galerie Denise René in Paris 1955. See above. And he has demonstrated his interest in art in motion many times since then.

(The best brief information about his writings on this matter you can find in "Das Gedruckte Museum von Pontus Hulten" 1996. The highlights are of course "Le Mouvement" Paris 1955, "Marcel Duchamp, Bokkonsum", Stockholm 1960", "Rörelse i konsten" (Art in Motion)", 1961 and "The Machine", MoMA 1968.)

In this, issue he makes one his attempts to introduce the importance of the kinetic art, where Duchamp has played a major roll. On page 7-13, In this chapter Hultén presents Duchamp’s moving and mechanical works and his important roll in that field.

It is illustrated with:

Photo from Duchamp’s studio in New York, where you can see his "first readymade" but a replica of "The Bicycle Wheel" S 278, and on the floor you can see "Trébuchet" S 350.

Photo of the "The Large Glass" S 404, the cracked version in Katherine S. Dreir's home.

Photos of "Rotary Glass Plates (Precision Optics)", one in motion and one in stillness, S 379. Now it is at Yale University Art Gallery. In the article, it is called "Rotary Glass Piaques", which must be a printing error. It shall be "Rotary Glass Plaques", which is Duchamp’s first motor-driven object 1920.

Photo of "Rotary Demisphere", 1925 S 409. Now it is at MoMA.

Photos of three of Duchamp’s "Rotoreliefs", 1935. S 441.


AVANTGARDE-FILM, by Peter Weiss, Stockholm

In his book pp 21-40, Peter Weiss has a chapter about the avant-garde films in the 20´s. Included are Marcel Duchamp´s "Anemic Cinéma" 1927, and his roll in René Clair´s "Entr´acte", 1925, in the famous chess party scene with Man Ray on a Paris rooftop. The text is illustrated with that scene and stills from Duchamp´s own film. (37 b)

37 b. AVANTGARDE-FILM 1956, Peter Weiss.


Konstspegeln no. 3-4

This is a small and local art magazine published in the south of Sweden. In no. 3/4 Max Walter Svanberg writes about "The magic art". He mentions the Dadaist Duchamp. His article is illustrated with "The King and Queen Traversed by Nudes at High Speed" S 246. Now it is at PMA. In a special caption Svanberg make following remark: "Duchamp, is one of the most important and incentive artists according to the new directions of art, which in this article are called "the non geometrical abstractions". (38).

38. Konstspegeln no. 3-4 1956.


KASARK no. 3 Maj.

In this issue, K.G.H. (Pontus Hultén) writes about collage or fantastic realities. On page 8, he points out that Duchamp’s used chance to create "3 stoppages étalon". S 282. Now it is at MoMA. (39)

39. KASARK no. 3 Maj (19)58.


Konstrevy no. 3

In his review "Utställningar i Stockholm mars - april" (Exhibitions in Stockholm March-April) Eugen Wretholm, mentions that Öyvind Fahlström uses chance as Duchamp. Probably the first time Duchamp’s influence on other artists is mentioned in Sweden. (40)

40. Konstrevy no. 3 1959.

Konstrevy no. 1

In this issue you find information about coming exhibitions at Galleri Vallingatan 42 (Bok-Konsum): "Galleri 42 "Marcel Duchamp" February 1960. Hans Nordström "BRUL" March, Edition MAT, April.


KASARK no. 4 April

This issue was published about the exhibition "Edition MAT" (Daniel Spoerri) at Bokkonsum in Stockholm, April 1960. (41)

41. KASARK no. 4 april 1960.

Even in this issue, K.G.H. (Pontus Hultén) writes about Duchamp. Headline:
"A Work of Art has no Price" He quotes Duchamp: "The modern art looks for its Gutenberg". Duchamp is presented like this: "Painter, poet, chess player, and a forerunner within Dadaism, surrealism and the kinetic art. In 1936, Duchamp exhibited his Rotoreliefs at the inventor’s exposition in Paris. Born in Blainville, France." See below Konstrevy no. 3/60.


Konstrevy no. 3

Eugen Wretholm writes about the exhibition at Bokkonsum, which he calls "Dadaistica". He mentions Marcel Duchamp and reproduces his Rotoreliefs placed on the pavement in front of the gallery together with other items from Edition MAT.


Konstrevy no. 5-6

Article by Öyvind Fahlström about Jean Tinguel´s, En maskins död", Marcel Duchamp is mentioned on page 197.



Saturday May 7, 1960 Bokkonsum opened an exhibition with some replicas of Marcel Duchamp’s ready-mades made by Per Olof Ultvedt and Ulf Linde. (42) In "Das gedruckte Museum von Hulten" 1996 page 83 are the circumstances about this exhibition described. In Linde’s book "Marcel Duchamp" 1986, it is described in a quite different way.

42. Ulf Linde. "Marcel Duchamp" 1986 p. 10,
in and outside Bokkonsum 1960.

On page 10 in Linde’s book 1986, you find a reproduction of the announcement card from Bokkonsum and some other photographs taken on the occasion. (42) In one, taken of the shop-window, you can see a large copy of (Elias) Eliot Elisofon's photo from Life Magazine, April 1952 "Duchamp descending a staircase", a paraphrase of his painting "Nude Descending a Staircase". Later used as cover on the revised edition of Robert Lebel’s monograph "Marcel Duchamp" published by Paragraphic Books, Grossman Publishers, New York 1967. In that edition, Lebel has extended his Catalogue Raisonné with information about Duchamp’s appearances in Sweden.

You can also see Ulf Linde’s "Bicycle Wheel" 1960, S 278 c. Now at MMS. "Fresh Widow", S 376, a carpenter made it on Linde’s request and was later acknowledged and signed by Duchamp "pour copie conforme Marcel" this version is now in the collection of MMS. In his book 1986, Linde calls it a readymade but According to Schwarz, it is not. You can also see the "Chocolate Grinder, No. 2", 1914, S 291. And there is a small version of "The Large Glass", which Linde says "Happily it has disappeared".

In Bokkonsum's show were also "Bottle Rack" which Daniel Spoerri had purchased at Bazaar l’ Hotel de Ville in Paris, and lent to the show. This copy is not mentioned in Schwarz.


Paletten no. 3

On page 91, they publish Marcel Duchamp’s "The Creative Act" translated by Folke Edwards, the chief editor. This lecture was given by Duchamp at the Convention of the American Federation of Arts in Houston, April 1957. See also page 99 where you can find information about Duchamp as a contributor to this issue. (43)

43. Paletten no. 3 1960.


Spejare by Ulf Linde

Linde’s book "Spejare" (Searcher) (See 11) was one of the reasons that started the great debate about art in Sweden later named "Är allting konst?" (Is everything art?). Perhaps it was one of Linde’s statements that awoke the most anger among artists and members of The Royal Academy of Arts, because Linde stressed Duchamp’s opinion that the viewer creates the work. Duchamp’s opinion was already released in 1957 in his lecture "The creative act" 1957.

It was Rabbe Enckell, chairman of the Royal Academy of Arts, who started the debate. He did it with his speech "Ikaros och lindansare, ett försvar för klassisismen" (Ikaros and ropewalkers, a defence for the classicism) given to the academy, May 30, 1962. Thereby he dissociated himself and the academy from the tendencies that he thought were threatening the order of art. This huge debate was later published in book called "Är allting konst?" (Is everything art?), Stockholm 1963 with Duchamp’s "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", on the cover. Sic!

It was not only Linde’s book, which caused this violent turbulence in the Swedish art context. There were other art events, which in the beginning of the 60’s contributed to the debate. Among other things was the purchasing politics of Moderna Museet in Stockholm. When they purchased Brancusi's "Le Nouveaux-né" 1961 from Rolf de Marée. In those days, it was an enormous price of 161.000 Swedish Crowns. Many thought it was an extremely waste of money.

Art in Motion and Four Americans

In 1961 K.G. Hultén, Carlo Derkert, Daniel Spoerri, and Billy Klüver opened the one of Moderna Museet’s most important exhibitions "Art in Motion" 17 May-3 September 1961. But as they understood that "Art in Motion" would be a chock to the Swedish art public it was first shown at Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, March 10-April 17. See Moderna Museet Stockholm 1958-1983, page 36 and below. (See 4)

And I can remember myself what debacle it was when Moderna Museet presented "4 Americans" in March 1962. Robert Rauschenberg's works made the biggest scandal with his "Monogram" a longhaired goat with a tyre around his stomach and a painted face. But also his "The Bed" a painted bed with cushion, sheets and a quilt hanging on the wall raised questions if that really could be considered as art.

It was during these two exhibitions Linde’s opinion about the viewer’s roll, got its breakthrough, probably because the great publicity about what was exhibited at the Moderna Museet. The issues were related. Not very odd that the conservative public and art critiques and artists were terrified, because in a way they had become obsolete.


Konstrevy no. 1

Öyvind Fahlström writes a review about Ulf Linde’s "Spejare", 1961.

"The central point in ‘Spejare’ is the analyse of Marcel Duchamp’s large painting which for the first time by us is placed in its correct importance (compare with the confusing whisperings made in connection with Duchamp’s exhibition at Konstsalongen, [Bokkonsum], Vallingatan. ‘Spejare’ is the most stimulating and beautifully written book in Swedish which I have read."


Rörelse i konsten, Moderna Museet, Stockholm
17 maj-3 september 1961, catalogue

This exhibition is one of the most important ever made in the 20th century. (See 4) In the working committee you find K.G. Hultén, (Pontus Hultén), Carlo Derkert, Daniel Spoerri and from U.S.A. Billy Klüver. Pontus Hultén, was editor of the catalogue and in his introduction he writes: "The contemporary art is often pessimistic, defeatistic and passive; completely natural one can mean. But there is also an another kind of art. That is what this exhibition want to show (dynamic, constructive, full of joy, confusing, ironical, humorous, aggressive...).
It is probably even typical for our time.

The 19th century exhibitions were visited by the same curious and interested masses of spectators that today are visiting the motor shows. But will they in the end find what they are looking for? Apollinaire wrote in 1913 according to Marcel Duchamp that only an art, which is liberated from aesthetic concerns and which, is dealing with energy as a pictorial material can hope to ‘re-unit the Art an the People’.

The camera is the machine to take picture with, which is available to everyone. But there are other art machines, perhaps more independent, which also talks to us and tells us who we are. They appear in many forms and materials, sometimes they look like scientific research or camouflage themselves as toys.

The kinetic art has during the 20th century been developing in many different ways, taken at least equally varying forms as the static art. To use the physical movement as an instrument of expression gives it a freedom, which art has been trying to attain for a long time...
K.G. Hultén"

In the catalogue, you find a short dictionary about the artists working with kinetic art. In the biographical note about Marcel Duchamp, they mention his first two ready-mades. "Pharmacy", S 283 and "Flaskstället" (Bottle Dryer ([Bottlerack] [1914]. S 306. See below about Duchamp’s works in the exhibition.

They also quote Duchamp "I did not stop painting in order to play chess. That is a myth. It is always like that. Because someone begins to paint it does not mean that he must continue with that. He is not even forced to stop. He just does not do it any more, in the same way that you do not make omelettes any longer, if you prefer meat. I do not think that it is necessary to classified people and, above all, treat painting as a profession. I do not understand why people try to do painters of civil servants and civil servants of the ministry of the fine arts. There are those who get medals, and those, who paint."

You also find a short review about the history of kinetic art in the 20th century by K.G. Hultén. He starts with some futurists artists, continues with Marcel Duchamp’s Coffee Mill 1911, and ends the presentation of Duchamp’s works with Rotoreliefs made in 1936.

Nine of Duchamp’s important kinetic works were shown at "Art in Motion" in addition to "Boite-en-valise" witch was represented at, the show. Therefore one can say that all of Duchamp’s major works were present. "Boite-en-Valise" represents a retrospective exhibition in a small suitcase. That was the first time Duchamp’s works were presented to a larger public in Sweden, perhaps for the first time in the world, without being related to Cubism, Futurism, Dadaism, and Surrealism.

If this was actually his mayor breakthrough in the context of Swedish art, is yet to be decided. Tough he did become absolutely accepted by the institutional art world at that time, his standing today is another question.

Works by Duchamp in the exhibition:

"Cykelhjulet", 1913, reconstruction, (Bicycle Wheel)

"Chokladkvarn Nr 2", 1914 (Chocolate Grinder No. 2), S 291.

"Naken går nedför en trappa, Nr 3", 1916, (Nude descending a staircase, No. 3) S 343.

"Bruden avklädd t.o.m. av sina ungkarlar", 1915-23, reconstruction 1961, (The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even [The Large Glass]),
S 404.

"Rotary Glass Plaques" (Optique de Precision), 1920, reconstruction 1960. (Rotary Glass Plates (Precision Optics) S 379.

"Demisphère Rotative 1925 (Optique de Precision)", (Rotary Demisphere (Precision Optics) S 409.

"Skivor med ordspråk", 1926, (Anemic Cinema: "Disks Inscribed with Puns"), S 415-23.

"Dörren i 11, rue Larrey", Paris 1927, reconstruction 1960. (Door: 11, rue Larrey), S 426.

"12 Rotoreliefer", 1935, (Rotoreliefs (Optical Disks), S 441.

"Boite-en-Valise". (From or by Marcel Duchamp or Rrose Sélavy [The Box in Valise], 1935-41), S 484.

For the exhibition "Rörelse i konsten" (Art in Motion) in Amsterdam and Stockholm Pontus Hultén, Per Olof Ultvedt and Magnus Wibom did a replica of "Rotary Glass Plates (Precision Optics)", S 379. Hultén and Daniel Spoerri made a replica of "Door: 11 rue Larrey". S 426. It was destroyed after the exhibitions. (See 4)


Konstrevy no. 3

On page 99, you can read about "Art in movement" at Moderna Museet. It is illustrated with a photo Duchamp visiting Iris Clert's gallery in Paris.

In Eugen Wretholm's review "Utställningar i Stockholm" (Exhibitions in Stockholm), page 112, Duchamp’s Fountain" and "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack] are mentioned. You can also find Umbro Apolloninos' article "The inner movement" where he refers to Duchamp’s and used "Nude Descending a Staircase" as an illustration.


Konstrevy no. 4

Eugen Wretholm writes about "Art in Movement" where he mentions Duchamps "Nu descendant un escalier" and remarks that the exhibition was originated in Paris as "Le Mouvement" at Denis René by K.G. Hultén and refers to his text about Art in Motion in KASARK 3, October 1955.


Konstrevy no. 5-6

On page 162-165, Ulf Linde writes the essay "Framför och bakom glaset" ("In front and behind the glass"). (44)

44. Konstrevy no. 5-6 1961.

This is an important article about Duchamp’s "The Large Glass". It is illustrated with 6 photographs taken about the assembling of Linde’s first reconstruction of "The Large Glass" together with Duchamp. It is a kind of interview with Duchamp.

Other illustrations are:
Marcel Duchamp photographed as a woman by Man Ray. But the correct title is according to Schwarz "Marcel Duchamp as Belle Halleine", photo Man Ray 1921, S 385.

"Chocolate Grinder no. 2." S 291.

"The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even", S 404, 1915-1923. Now it is at PMA.

Page out of "Boite Verte, The Green Box". A box with 93 notes, drawings, photographs, and/or facsimiles by Duchamp contained in a green-flocked cardboard box, 1934. S 435.

On page 224-227, Öyvind Fahlström writes about "The Art of Assemblage" at Museum of Modern Art, New York and he mentions Duchamp’s last painting "Tu m´", S 354. Now it is at Yale University Art Gallery. His article is illustrated with the version of "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" on a table photographed by Man Ray and sent in by Duchamp to the Museum of Modern Art exhibition 1936-37.


Paletten no. 1

Paletten no. 1 1961 published an article "Marcel Duchamp: Anti-Artist" by Harriet and Sidney Janis translated by Folke Edwards, chief editor. (45)

45. Paletten no. 1 1961.

This article is richly illustrated with mayor works from Duchamp’s

"Bride", 1912, S 253.

"Coffee Mill", 1911, S 237.

"Rotorelief´s", 1935, S 441.

"Bicycle Wheel", 1916, (1913), S 278.

"Marcel Duchamp", portrait by Man Ray 1920. But it is Marcel Duchamp as Belle Haleine, by Man Ray 1921 in New York according to S 385.

"L.H.Q.O.Q.", 1919. But the correct title is "L.H.O.O.Q.", 1919, Paris. S 369.

"Bachelors", 1914. But the correct title is "Nine Malic Moulds", S 328. It is hard to see which version it is because the editor has only reproduced a part of the original size. But it seems to be the original version Duchamp made 1914.

"The King and Queen Traversed by Nudes at High Speed", 1912, S 246.

"Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2", 1912, S 242.

"Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", 1914, S 306. This photograph is another version taken by Man Ray 1936. This has both a shadow and a white reflex below its base. It looks like somebody has made a retouch.

"Trois Stoppages Étalon (3 Standard Stoppages)", 1913-14. S 282.

"La Mariée mise a nu ses clélibataires, meme", 1914-1923. S 404. The cracked version in Katherine S. Dreir's home

"Fresh Widow", 1920, S 376.

"Tu m´", 1918, S 354.

"Roterande glasplattor (Precisionsoptik)", 1920. The correct title is "Rotating Glass Plates (Precision Optics)", S 379.

"Chocolate Grinder No.1", 1913, S 264.


Paletten no. 2

In this issue Elisabet Hermodsson, artist and poet, comments Linde’s book "Spejare". Her contribution is titled "Critics as a benefit moralist" and she quotes Linde: "By it self nothing is art. First you have to call it art, see it as a work of art."

Linde replies in the same issue where he talks about Duchamp’s readymade "Why not sneeze":
"You have to do something with the art work, that it could ‘be’ art."

Hermodsson's reaction was typical among the conservative artists in Sweden. They were afraid of losing their territory of art.

Folke Edwards comments the exhibition "Art in Motion". He notes that many of the pioneers participated and that Duchamp was a representative for Futurism, Constructivism, and Dadaism.


Rondo no. 3

Öyvind Fahlström comments on Duchamp’s Surcensur and notices that "Duchamp has as usual done it before..." Page 27. (46)

46. Rondo no. 3 1961.


Paletten no. 3

Torsten Andersson, painter contributes with "One price store culture or artistic dictatorship". He writes "In the shadow of Duchamps... I don’t stop any man in the world by presenting a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" or let the public fire a pistol."


Konstrevy no. 1

In this issue, Linde begins to present his important translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass". S 404. The notes 1-11 are published. It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green Box". S 435. (47)

47. Konstrevy no. 1, 1962. In this issue UlfLinde begins his translation
of notes from "The Green Box".


Konstrevy no. 2

In this issue Linde continues his translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 12-33. It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green Box".


Konstrevy no. 3

In this issue Linde continues his translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 34-39. It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green Box".


Konstrevy no. 4

In this issue Linde continues his translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 40-48. It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green Box" and a photo of "Nine Malic Moulds".

Under the review "Exhibitions in Paris", they note an exhibition at Galerie L’Oeil where they showed the art magazine Minotaur. By the works mentioned, you find Marcel Duchamp’s "The Green Box" and "Rotoreliefs".


Konstrevy no. 5-6

In this issue Linde ends his translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 49-78, which he had made in collaboration with Malou Höjer. It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green Box". This contains 93 notes on "The Large Glass". In Art Review No. 1/1963, he publishes his comments on the subject. See below. (48)

48. Konstrevy no. 5-6 1962. In this issue Ulf Linde
ends his translation of "The Green Box".


Paletten no. 4

C. G. Bjurström, "Artworks and things" where he discusses among others Linde’s interpretation of Duchamp’s "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]".


Konstrevy no. 1

Here you find Ulf Linde's essay "Kommentar till Marcel Duchamps "Bruden avklädd av sina ungkarlar, t.o.m." (Comment to Marcel Duchamp’s "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even.") It is illustrated with drawings from the "Green Box" and photography of Marcel Duchamp taken by Lütfi Özkök in Stockholm 1961. (49)

49. Konstrevy no. 1 1963, Comments on Marcel Duchamp´s
"The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even."


Konstrevy no. 2

Full size advertisement about Marcel Duchamp’s exhibition at Galerie Eva af Burén April - May 1963. Illustrated by a photography of Duchamp’s "Female Fig Leaf" S 536. (50)

50. Konstrevy no. 2 1963, Female Fig Leaf.
Advertisement for Galerie Eva af Burén.


Är allting konst?

A collection of contributions to the great debate "Is everything art?" published by Tribunserien, Bonniers 1963. See above. Ulf Linde’s reply to Torsten Bergmark's criticism is perhaps the sharpest and clearest I have ever read. (51)

51. Anthology: Är allting konst? 1963.


Galerie Eva af Burén - Marcel Duchamp

In connection with Duchamp’s exhibition at Galerie Eva af Burén, Stockholm 1963 with replicas of his ready-mades Ulf Linde released his book "Marcel Duchamp" (52) and he begins it in a very different way: "I must ask the reader not to read the text - it is secondary. It is the captions, which are primary. I must ask you to read them first."

52. Ulf Linde, Marcel Duchamp, 1963.

This is the first book published in Sweden about the complexity of Duchamp’s works. In which you get a glimpse of Duchamp’s aesthetics and anti-aesthetics views used by him since he distanced himself from the retinal art.

In Linde’s book 1987 he reveals how his book about Marcel Duchamp finally was published. Primarily Linde’s text was written by request from Marcel Duchamp, for Metro a very exclusive magazine in Milan, which had offered Duchamp to use 32 pages in no. 9. Duchamp, who had read Linde’s text in "Spejare", asked Linde if he could take care of the text for Metro by using the text from "Spejare" with a few corrections and perhaps a new text.

Duchamp wished that Linde emphasised on his ready-mades and used a few of his own texts-Linde could make his own choice. But Linde’s text was never published in Metro so he started to think how that could be done.

The issue of finances was solved when Duchamp offered his "Self-portrait in Profile" in a special edition of 1-25 copies (53). It sold well and covered a part of the printing costs, S 557 b. An, unnumbered edition was also published about the exhibition.

The show actually began when Linde visited Galerie Burén. During the call, he began discussing ways to display Duchamp’s "Boite en Valise".
Eva af Burén had purchased the work and wanted to exhibit it at her gallery. She wanted to consult the poosibilities with Linde.
"After a while we had planned an exhibition, which should contain replicas of almost every readymade by Duchamp. Only two were available in Stockholm - "Bicycle Wheel" and "Fresh Widow", both signed by him when he was here (1961) - but one could ask Duchamp to manufacture the rest. - We wrote to Duchamp and received an immediate reply". (See above.)

Replicas made for the exhibition at Burén:

"3 Stoppages étalon" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed 1964 in Milan. S 282 a.

"Bottle Rack" by Ulf Linde 1963. S 306 e. Not signed.

"Le Peigne" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Milan 1964. S 339 a.

"A bruit secret" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Milan 1964. S 340 a.

"Air de Paris" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Pasadena 1963. Signature lost at Louisiana, Humlebæck 1975. S 375 c.

"Fountaine" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Milan 1964. S 345 c.

"...pliant de voyage..." by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Pasadena 1963.
S 341 a.

"Why not sneeze?" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Milan 1964. S 391 a.

"In advance of the broken arm" by Ulf Linde 1963. S 332 b.

Replicas already made for Bokkonsum:

"Bicycle Wheel" by P. O. Ultvedt and Ulf Linde 1960 for Bokkonsum, signed 1961. S 278 c.

"Fresh Widow" by P. O. Ultvedt and Ulf Linde 1960, for Bokkonsum, signed 1961. S 376 a.

"La mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires, même" by Ulf Linde 1961. Signed in Stockholm 1961 for Art in Motion. S 404 a.

Other works by Duchamp at Moderna Museet:

"Cœur volant". S 446 c.

"Rotorelief". S 441.

"Rotary Glass Plaques" replica by P. O. Ultvedt, M. Wibom and (K. G. Hultén). S 379 a.

"Objet Dard", 1951. S 542.

(Source: "Supplement, Katalogen Moderna Museet, 1976.)

"Pharmacie" replica by Marcel Duchamp 1963. Gift from Ulf Linde 1977.
S 283.

(Source: "Supplement, Katalogen Moderna Museet, 1983".)

"Marcel Duchamp" av Ulf Linde, edition de luxe published by Eva af Burén 1963. S 557.

"Bouche-évier", Cadaqués 1964. S 608.

"Étant donnés le gaz d’clairage et la chute d'eau", is a gift from Thomas Fisher. S 526.

"Étant donnés le gaz d’clairage et la chute d'eau". Gift from Thomas Fisher. S 531.

"La machine célibataire", model made by Håkan Rehnberg 1984. It is not in Schwarz.

"Le surréalisme même", S 548.

Statens Konstmuseer, Stockholm

"Boite en valise", Statens Konstmuseer. S 435.

"A l’infinitif", Statens Konstmuseer. S 637.

"Prière de toucher", Statens Konstmuseer. S 521-523.

(Source: Catalogue Marcel Duchamp, Moderna Museet, Stockholm 1986-1987)


Paletten no. 3

Arne Törnqvist reviews Ulf Linde's book "Marcel Duchamp" (52) on pages 123 and 125, in "Reflexer" where Törnqvist writes about Moderna Museet’s purchase of Linde’s Duchamp replicas. (sic!)


Konstrevy no. 4

Marcel Dutchman’s "Virgin, No. 1"1912, S 250 drawing, illustrates Karin Bergqvist-Lindegren's review about Dokumenta III. (Later she becomes director of Moderna Museet.)


Paletten no. 4

This contains an advertisement for the special edition of 25 copies of Ulf Linde’s book "Marcel Duchamp" published by Galerie Eva af Burén. In this edition you will find Duchamp’s "Self-portrait in Profile" S 557 b, used in the advertisement. (53.)

53. Paletten no. 4 1964, Advertisement for Galerie Eva af Burén
about the special edition of Linde´s book
"Marcel Duchamp".


Moderna Museet besöker Landskrona Konsthall

K.G.Hultén writes introduction. (Pontus Hultén)

Exhibited works:

"Bicycle Wheel", 1913, S 278 c,

"Bottle Dryer (Bottlerack)", 1914, S 306 e,

"Peigne, (Comb)", 1916, S 339 a,

"A bruit secret, (With Hidden Noise)", 1916, S 340 a,

"Fontaine, (Fountain)", 1917, S 345 c,

"...pliant de voyage...(Traveler's Folding Item [Underwood]", 1917, S 342 a,

"Fresh Widow", 1920, S 376 a,

"Why Not sneeze, (Why Not Sneeze Rose Sélavy?)" 1921, S 391 a,

"Rotorelief, 1930-tal, (Rotoreliefs [Optical Disks])", 1935, S 441,

"Boite en valise", 1942, ("From or by Marcel Duchamp or Rrose Sélavy [The Box in Valise]", 1935-41), S 484,

"Objet Dard" 1951, (Objet-Dard [Dart Object, 1951]), S 542.

"Feuille de Vigne", 1951, ("Feuille de Vigne Femelle [Female Fig Leaf, 1950]"), S 536.


Fyra artiklar av Ulf Linde

With these four articles all published in the daily newspaper Dagens Nyheter, spring 1965, Linde retired as their art critic, and these were later published in a book with the same title by BLM biblioteket, Bonniers, Stockholm 1965. (54)

54. Ulf Linde, Fyra artiklar, 1965.

He had enough. All four articles are the result of the great debate of art, which started in 1962. In the fourth article he comments Duchamp’s attitude about his readymade "Fountain" and he quotes Duchamp: "Whether Mr Mutt did the fountain with his own hands or not has no relevance. He CHOOSED it.
He took well-known utility goods and presented it that its common idea disappeared. A new title and a new point of view did it possible; he created a new concept for the item in question."
(See The Blind Man, P.B.T. no. 2 May 1917. This editorial has often been attributed to Duchamp himself, but according to Schwarz XXII 10, 1997, page 898 "rather written by the editorial board".)

(Refer to Hector Obalk’s article "The Unfindable readymades" ToutFaitJournal Vol. 1 Issue 2, 1999, and Beatrice Wood´s autobiography "I Shock Myself", 1992 [1985], pp 26-36.)


Gorilla (1), kalender

This is one of the most original publications about art and culture in Sweden in an era that was characterised by Marshall McLuhan.
Only two issues were released. In this first issue Leon Rappaport, Polish mathematician, physicist, diplomat and author of Determinantan and Eva writes "Kring konsten" (About art). He polemizes against Marcel Duchamp, and wrires how Duchamp has mixed two completely different things i his work. (55)

55. Gorilla (1), kalender, 1966.


Meddelande från Moderna Museet nr. 19.

This issue of Moderna Museet’s bulletin was published as catalogue for the DADA exhibition 1966. (56) On page 17, K.G.H (Pontus Hultén) presents Marcel Duchamp. Hultén writes about Duchamp’s ready-mades and his waning faith in the traditional art. 14 works by Duchamp are in the exhibition and 10 of them are Linde’s ready-made replicas. Each item is well described in detail.

56. Meddelande från Moderna Museets Vänner,
no. 19 1966.

Hultén's article is accompanied by facsimile of a letter to Duchamp concerning the origins of his ready-mades. The artist wrote his replies within the margins of the letter and specifically comments on the Bicycle Wheel: "Yes, but no name, not even ready made 1913. Never exhibited and lost after moving", Duchamp wrote.

(See above the letters to Suzanne Duchamp and Schwarz no. 278 a, replica also lost.)


Konstrevy no. 2

The Swedish artist Ulrik Samuelson writes about Duchamps "art coeffient" on page 51-52.

In his essay Billy Klüver, page 56-66, mention Marcel Duchamp on page 64, illustrated with The Bicycle Weel.

On page 67-76 you find Ulf Linde´s important essay "Duchamp och den fjärde dimensionen" (Duchamp and fourth Dimension).


Konstrevy no. 4

In this issue you find an editorial note about the review in Art International about Marcel Duchamp´s retrospective exhibition at Tate shown during the summer in 1966. Duchamp´s "The Large Glass" is mentioned and why Ulf Linde´s keys to "The Large Glass" have been excluded, page 148. At page 189, "Världskonsten", (Art of the World) "Hur skulle den amerikanska konsten ha sett ut i dag utan Marcel Duchamp" (Wath would the American Art look today wihout Marcel Duchamp).


Vår konst no. 6

Vår Konst, no. 6, 1966 publiched an article about "grammonskivor, pocketböcker, multikonst" (gramophone records, pocket books, multiple art) by Kristian Romare. (57)

57. Vår Konst no. 6 1966.

He writes: "A modern folk art of mass-produced artistic objects to experience, distributed in the same way as pocket books and gramophone records into our daily life, are necessary if not the visual art shall remain an isolated phenomenon inside the walls of the museums..."

He tells us how Daniel Spoerri started edition MAT in 1959, and that he asked Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Vasarely, Tinguely and athor artists to create hundreds of copies of tree dimensional artworks, to be sold for a couple of hundred crowns.
Romare continues: "In the springtime, in connection with Riksutställningar's - Konstfrämjandet's campaign of the multi art project, 1966, a gallery (Galleri Hedenius, EW KR nr 4, 1966, also in Malmö and Gothenburg Galere Leger 1967) in Stockholm arranged an exhibition with multiples edited by Edition-MAT, [100 copies of Duchamp’s 1953 edition], with a great sale success. (Romare is wrong about the year, because that exhibition was arranged already in 1960) (The exhibitions) by Spoerri's friend Per Olof Ultvedt, (were shown) with the first Edition MAT collection at Bokkonsum in Stockholm and in controversial pamphlet called KASARK."

Romare continues: " ‘The modern art looks for its Gutenberg’ has Duchamp said. And he is also the one who earliest and most radically had broken with the idea about the unique, valuable Work of Art and looked for ways to communicate the idea of art, the conceptual expression, by mass fabricated things. Neither already produced objects, like his famous ´Bottle Rack´and ´Bicycle Wheel´or his own images, for which the production is as natural as when a manuscript is printed or gramophone record is pressed. With his Rotoreliefs, 1935 - optical disks which are records for the eye-has he demonstrated how mass fabricated artworks could be done."

This article is illustrated with the following works:
"Grammofonskiva för ögat: Marcel Duchamps rotorelief" från 1935, utgiven av Moderna Museet i Stockholm, att ses i rörelse. (Optical disk for the eye: Marcel Duchamp’s Rotoreliefs, to be seen in motion, published by Moderna Museet, Stockholm. (For this work, see S 441 page 731 under Reproductions 5. Corolles.)


Konstrevy no. 1

Eugen Wretholm mentions Marcel duchamp and the Surrealist Exhibition at Galerie Mæght, Paris, and the special edition of catalogue "Prière de toucher", designed by Marcel Duchamp in his review about foreign exhibitions, on page 3.
He also writes about Peggy Guggenheim´s exhibition at Moderna Museet in Stockholm where he mentions Duchamp on page 40. On page 41 he also refers to Duchamp´s "chokladkross" ("Chocolate Grinder"), disguised to a vacuum cleaner. On page 38 "Konstrond i Caracas" (Art tour in Caracas), Marcel Duchamp are mentioned according to "Le Mouvement" 1955 at Galerie Denis René.


Paletten no. 2

Per Drougge: "Strip-Tease på barrikaden, ett spel med figurer och innebörder". (Strip-Tease on the barricades, a play with figures and meanings.)

Drougge says: "The most strange myth in modern history of art is probably that has appeared around Marcel Duchamp..."


Konstrevy no. 4

Eugen Wretholm writes in his foreign review about Duchamp´s exhibition at Musée National d´Art Moderne, Paris,: "Musée National d´Art Moderne, have dedicated Marcel Duchamp an retrospective exhibition which is as late as it is poor, completed with sculptures by Raymond Duchamp-Villon, who died untimely. The major work "The Large Glass" was not included (Ulf Linde´s replica was shown at the extensive Surrealist Exhibition at Galerie Charpentier last year.) The only works of interest, rarely shown, were some of his early post-impressionistic works. In these you can see how early Duchamp mastered the craft which he later held in contempt.

Wretholm continues: "In the May issue of L´Oeil Robert Lebel pubished an interesting interview with Duchamp, who in his ironical way commented that he was satisfied with the increasing interest in "The Large Glass" and other works by him. That is much better than photographs in colour or black and white, though these are lacking the specific aesthetic touch, which Duchamp later on the other hand did not give much consideration, page 147. Lebel Quotes Marcel Duchamp: "My main thought was to reduce - but at the same time I reconised the purpose of my art as something more introvert, the world around me became of less interest."


Konstrevy no. 5-6

This issue is dedicated to the Surrealism and there you can find a translation from Marcel Duchamp’s "A l’infinitif" Neuilly 1913. (58)
On page 193 Olle Granath qoutes from Breton´s Surrealistic Manifest. "Jag är angelägen om att tillägga att varje form av surrealistisk teknik är mig fullständigt likgiltig.", and he continues: "Marcel Duchamp has, rather late in his life, raised the same demands about contemporary art: "...once more put painting into the service of mind."

58. Konstrevy no.5/6 1967, Marcel Duchamp,
"A l’infinitif", 1913.


Konstrevy no. 2

In this interesting article "Konsten som tvång och som befrielse" (Art as compulsion and as liberation) by Ola Billgren, page 80-87, he presents his ideas about Duchamp´s and his works. On page 82 he mentions Linde´s "Spejare".

On page 83 you find this piece: "The characteristic of the whole process is how a striving towards objectivness is changed to an opinion, which of course gives the artist identity, but at the same time makes him singel. And this condition one has tried to ignore and cover in veils of mist - not even Marcel Duchamp could remedy this fear.
It seems incomprehensible that Marcel Duchamp´s ideas did not received a more radical importance to contemporary art than it got, yet he pointed out what one most of all feared, and did it furthermore from the same position as his contemporary.

Ther is no need to look closer to Duchamp´s art sabotage. Let us only summarise a couple of important things: Duchamp denied to put himself in a situation like Picasso, he choose science, although it have shown that it could neglect ´the art´and by that, he was the only one true to the ideals of time.

With his´ready-mades´he confuted with full evidence that art is a quality in the artwork. The art proved to be hierarchy of value in the absence of universality, a leading principle, or what ever you will.... As he, at the same time, indicated this, Duchamp wanted toprevail for these shortages by giving the artwork a new function, it would not only confute the art, but also made it to be experimental material for the viewers, who should be forced to move their interest from the incomprehensible status of feeling to the level of mind. (As we know this later led to that Duchamp himself lost interest in what he was doing himself - he found less reasons to occupy himself with the problems of art.)

The results of what Duchamp achieved would be enough to create a total crisis within world of art. But the hierarchy survived even Duchamp himself let his meta-art be incorporated in the collections, where it transformed to convenient fetishes. The art continued to expand in all possible directions without passing the Duchampian threshold. One continued to talk about research, development, sensibility, humanism, as the base for every new direction of mode gradually were excavated leaving a larger void to be filled and hidden."


Paletten no. 4

Article by P. G. Hultén, "Maskinen" (The Machine) about the exhibition at Museum of Modern Art 1968.


During my research, I have found that the Swedish art context was probably the first to recognise Marcel Duchamp’s works in a unique perspective without connecting him to Futurism, Dadaism, and Surrealism.
Instead, Pontus Hultén focused on Duchamp’s kinetic works while Ulf Linde focused on the "the Large Glass" and his ready-mades.

In my opinion, without Hultén’s engagement in the Kinetic art since the 50’s that genre and category would not exist.

"Le Mouvement" at Galerie Denise René, Paris 1955, "Marcel Duchamp" Bokkonsum, Stockholm 1960 and "Art in Motion", Amsterdam, Stockholm 1961, and Louisiana, Humlebæck, Denmark, 1961, are all due to Hultén’s initiative. In addition to his involvement in these shows, is the MoMA’s exhibition "The Machine" 1968-1969. As director for the new Centre Pompidou (Beaubourg) in Paris 1977, he arranged the first retrospective Marcel Duchamp in France and in 1993 at Palazzo Grazzi, Venice.


Printed sources

© 2000 författaren
Artikeln får citeras om källan anges
Leif Eriksson
Photo: Per Anders Jörgensen, Malmö, Sweden